Evaluation of clinical and sonographic features in 55 children with tularemia

Oz F., Eksioglu A., Tanír G., BAYHAN G. İ., Metin Ö., Teke T. A.

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, vol.14, no.8, pp.571-575, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1089/vbz.2013.1517
  • Journal Name: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.571-575
  • Keywords: Differential diagnosis, Francisella tularensis, Lymphoadenopathy, Pediatric patients, Tularemia, Ultrasonography
  • Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University Affiliated: Yes


Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and sonographic features of lymphadenopathy (LAP) and to evaluate the treatment modalities and treatment outcomes in children with tularemia. Materials and Methods: Demographic characteristics, ultrasonographic and physical examination findings, and treatment outcomes in 55 tularemia patients (24 male and 31 female) with a mean age of 10.8±4.0 years were analyzed retrospectively. Lymph node necrosis was classified in three stages based on ultrasound findings-stage 1, cortical microabscesses; stage 2, cortical and medullar abscesses; stage 3, total necrosis of the lymph node. Results: In total, 50 (90%) of the patients had oropharyngeal, four (8%) had glandular, and one (2%) had oculoglandular tularemia. The most common symptoms were sore throat (67%) and fever (64%). LAP was the most frequently (100%) observed sign. Abscess formation was noted in 36 (65%) patients, of which seven (19%) were sonographically classified as stage 1, 20 (55%) as stage 2, and nine (26%) as stage 3. There was a statistically significant correlation between delayed treatment and stage of abscess formation in lymph nodes (p<0.05). Treatment failure was observed in 24 (44%) patients. There was no significant correlation between treatment regimen and treatment failure (p>0.05). In all, nine (16%) of the patients did not respond to medical treatment, and surgical intervention was required. Conclusion: Tularemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with unexplained fever, sore throat, and cervical LAP in endemic areas. Sonographic findings may be useful in the evaluation and staging of this infection. © 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.