Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in men and women. Similar to the approach with other cancer types, lung cancer staging is crucial in planning an effective treatment plan and predicting patient prognosis. Effective immunotherapies for patients with non-small cell lung cancer and non-genomic driver mutations are rapidly evolving. Moreover, anti-programmed death re-ceptor-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-based treatments have become the first-line standard of care. Despite shortcomings, PD-L1 expression level seems currently to be a relatively reliable predictor of the clinical efficacy of treatment with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 anti-bodies. However, additional biomarkers are required to better personalize treatment options for these patients. This review aimed to increase awareness of lung cancer and immunotherapy treatment options, depending on patient and disease stage characteristics.